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The Health Benefits and Risks of Vegan and Vegetarian Diets

The fast growth of Veganism

With more than 3.5 million people in the UK and about 6 to 8 million people in the USA are living on a vegetarian diet, veganism is growing faster than we thought, particularly among younger generation aged 15 to 34.

According to Harvard Medical School, there are some different types of vegetarians such as:

  • 100% vegetarians (Vegans): people who don’t eat any animal-derived foods.
  • Lacto-ovo vegetarians: people who don’t eat meat, poultry or fish, however they still eat eggs and dairy products.
  • Lacto vegetarians: people who don’t eat meat, poultry, fish or eggs, but they still eat dairy products.
  • Ovo vegetarians: people who don’t eat meat, poultry, fish or dairy products, however they still eat eggs.
  • Pesco vegetarians : people who don’t eat meat or poultry, but they still eat fish.
  • Pollo vegetarians: people who don’t eat meat or fish, however they still eat poultry.

What are the health benefits of vegan and vegetarian diets?

Improving health is the main reason for the majority of people to follow a plant-based diet. Fruits and vegetables are known to be beneficial for human health as they can help protect our body against some diseases such as:


According to many studies, eating lots of different fruits and vegetables everyday can reduce the risk of developing cancers. By avoiding red meat, we can significantly reduce the risk for colon cancer.

Heart Disease

Five prospective studies involving more than 76,000 participants suggested that vegetarians were 25% less likely to die from heart disease. Eating nuts, whole grains and legumes help to keep your blood sugar levels steady, reduce bad cholesterol levels and protect your heart. 

However, vegans and vegetarians need to minimise the consumption of refined carbohydrates and starches like potatoes, white rice and white-flour products as these foods can increase the risk of heart attack and diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes

Some studies suggested that vegetarians were 50% less likely to catch type 2 diabetes compared to non-vegetarians. The risk for type 2 diabetes is higher among overweight people. Vegans and vegetarians are usually less likely to suffer from obesity, therefore they are at lower risk of suffering from the type 2 diabetes. 

Vegan and Vegetarian Diets 

What are the risks of vegan and vegetarians diets?

Vegan and vegetarian diets can be healthier options for most of us. Nevertheless, there are some common concerns that being a vegan or vegetarian may deprive your body of certain nutrients such as:


According to EPIC-Oxford study, 75% of vegans got less than recommended daily intake of calcium, therefore the risk of bone fractures are relatively high among vegans. Vegans are highly recommended to eat vegetables such as bok choy, broccoli, chinese cabbage, collards and kale. These are the vegan sources of calcium.

Vitamin B12 D and K

There is no or not enough vegan source(s) of vitamin B12 D and K, therefore vegans should consider taking a supplement to get the daily intake of these vitamins. Alternatively, there are some fortified foods such as soya milk, fruit juices and breakfast cereals containing these vitamins.


There are many vegan sources of protein such as peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, seeds, nuts, soy products and whole grains. So if you are a vegan, try to include  these foods in your diets.


Although there are some vegan sources of iron, it is less active than the iron that non-vegans get from meat. To boost the iron intake in your vegan diet, make sure that you eat plenty of pulses, watercress, broccoli, nuts and dry fruits such apricots, prunes and figs. To help your body more effectively absorb the iron from these foods, you can eat them with vitamin C rich foods like fruits.


Whole grains, seeds, beans and legumes contain phytic acid which reduces the zinc absorption, therefore you need to eat enough tofu, chickpeas, walnuts, cashew nuts, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, to get your daily intake of zinc.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Vegetarian diets that exclude fish and eggs are low in omega-3 fatty acids. To make sure that your body is not deprived of this essential fatty acids, eat plenty of chia seeds, flaxseed, walnuts and hemp seeds. Use rapeseed oil as your main cooking oil as it is particularly rich in omega-3 fat.

Vegan and Vegetarian Products

Your skin can absorb what you put on it, therefore, if you are a vegan or vegetarian, look for skincare products that are suitable for vegans such as PariQu. Formulated by a multi-award winning skincare formulator to help keep your skin healthy, PariQu is a premium vegan skincare brand made in London, United Kingdom. 

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Sources: Becoming Vegetarian, Harvard Health Publishing, Harvard Medical School; The Vegan Society; NHS UK

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